- Chinese Crested
- Mexican Hairless Dog
- Peruvian Inca Orchid Dog
- Chesapeake Bay Retriever
- German Shepherd Dog
Ectodermal dysplasia is a term that covers a wide group of diseases associated with abnormal development of any tissue of ectodermal origin, namely skin, nails and teeth. Approximately 150 such diseases have been described in humans, but to date there are only three types with defined mutations in canines.
Chinese Crested Type
This type of ED is responsible for hairlessness as well as dental abnormalities in the Chinese Crested, Mexican Hairless, and Peruvian Hairless breeds. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Pups that have a single copy of the FOXI3 mutation will have more hair than those with two copies sometimes making them difficult to tell from pups with no copies (powderpuff).
This disease manifests itself as a skin fragility syndrome, where affected dogs begin showing signs of skin sloughing off from the nose, footpads, and lips immediately after birth. The disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive disease, meaning animals with a single copy of the mutation show no symptoms, while those with two copies usually die at a very young age due to the aforementioned symptoms and general failure to thrive.X – linked Type
There has been an X linked recessive form of ED reported in a German Shepherd Dog and subsequent research colony. These dogs lack sweat glands, have sparse hair and abnormal teeth. The mutation which causes this has been identified, and thus a test is available.